Legal[ edit ] In the theory of lawa controversy differs from a legal case ; while legal cases include all suits, criminal as well as civila controversy is a purely civil proceeding. This clause has been deemed to impose a requirement that United States federal courts are not permitted to hear cases that do not pose an actual controversy—that is, an actual dispute between adverse parties which is capable of being resolved by the [court].
At the same time, the introduction of genetically engineered crops had little apparent influence on the rate at which agricultural productivity was increasing over time.
In the future, the academy said, researchers and regulators should be sure to evaluate the safety and efficacy of specific crops, rather than focus on potential risk posed by the process of modifying the plants. The report takes an in-depth look at past research on and future potential of the often controversial application of genetic engineering to U.
Supporters of the technology say genetically engineered, or GE, crops are necessary for meeting the nutritional demands of a growing global population.
Opponents say that the crops could pose environmental and health risks, particularly over the long term. Currently, most of the genetically modified crops commercially available have added traits that protect plants from pests and make them resistant to herbicides.
But in the future, the technology could be used more to address crop vulnerabilities to climate change, by incorporating traits for drought resistance and for heat and cold tolerance, according to the report. Increased temperatures will speed crop development and thus limit potential yields.
Some call report reassuring Genetic engineering approaches could be used along with conventional breeding and changes in farm management to help plants better survive environmental changes, they said.
A major challenge is that adding traits like heat tolerance is much more complex than altering a single gene to make a plant herbicide-resistant, said Richard Amasino, a member of the NAS committee.
But do we understand the basic biochemistry of how that might work? There is no one magic little protein you put in. So these are all very complex issues. Altogether, the committee members evaluated 1, scientific articles on GE crops; received input from scientists, industry and environmental groups during 80 presentations; and read more than comments posted on the NAS website.
Gould noted that as conventional plant breeding has become a more high-technology practice, the line separating GE and non-GE crops has blurred. He emphasized the importance of evaluating genetic engineering based on the products created rather than based on the technological process itself.
We tried very much to steer away from those broad, sweeping generalizations.Scientific opinion on climate change is a judgment of scientists regarding the degree to which global warming is occurring, its likely causes, and its probable consequences..
A related—but not identical—term, "scientific consensus on climate change," is the prevailing view on climate change within the scientific community. The consensus is that: Earth's climate has warmed significantly.
Climate change is the biggest and most controversial environmental issue of our times.
Or rather, the cause of climate change is. The fact that the Earth's climate has changed over its history - sometimes with cataclysmic consequences, called mass extinctions, for many of the planet's inhabitants - .
This page is being updated. Thank you for your interest in this topic. We are currently updating our website to reflect EPA's priorities under the leadership of President Trump and Administrator Pruitt. Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
A lighthearted look at the effect of climate change on the world’s oceans and the heat capacity of water. Article: Warming ocean causing most Antarctic ice shelf mass loss Ocean waters melting the undersides of Antarctic ice shelves are responsible for most of the continent's ice shelf mass loss, a new study by NASA and university researchers has found.
The Cook review of 11, peer-reviewed studies on climate change found that only 78 studies (%) explicitly rejected the position that humans are responsible for global warming. A separate review of 13, peer-reviewed studies on climate change found .