At the turn of the century, Expressionism and Symbolism were important, especially in Northern Europe. Both involved non-realistic styles of acting, staging, and language, with expressionism concentrating on using unusual technical devices to project the interior states of characters.
Anthropology Anthropology is the holistic "science of humans", a science of the totality of human existence. The discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social scienceshumanities and human biology.
In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have often been institutionally divided into three broad domains. The natural sciences seek to derive general laws through reproducible and verifiable experiments.
The humanities generally study local traditions, through their historyliteraturemusicand artswith an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras. The social sciences have generally attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though usually with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences.
The anthropological social sciences often develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology.
Anthropology like some fields of history does not easily fit into one of these categories, and different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. It is an area that is offered at most undergraduate institutions. Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the sciences".
The goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of humans and human nature. This means that, though anthropologists generally specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic, historic and cultural aspects of any problem.
Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior".
The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic, archaeological, and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs.
It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large, evolving global culture. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, biological, linguistic or archaeological.
Archaeology Archaeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifactsarchitecturebiofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.
Archaeology is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States,  while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history.
Classics[ edit ] Bust of Homerthe most famous Greek poet Classicsin the Western academic tradition, refers to the studies of the cultures of classical antiquitynamely Ancient Greek and Latin and the Ancient Greek and Roman cultures.
Classical studies is considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities; however, its popularity declined during the 20th century. Nevertheless, the influence of classical ideas on many humanities disciplines, such as philosophy and literature, remains strong. History[ edit ] History is systematically collected information about the past.
When used as the name of a field of studyhistory refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humanssocietiesinstitutions, and any topic that has changed over time. Traditionally, the study of history has been considered a part of the humanities.
In modern academiahistory is occasionally classified as a social science. Linguistics and languages[ edit ] See also: All pages with a title containing language While the scientific study of language is known as linguistics and is generally considered a social science a natural science  or a cognitive science the study of languages is still central to the humanities.
A good deal of twentieth-century and twenty-first-century philosophy has been devoted to the analysis of language and to the question of whether, as Wittgenstein claimed, many of our philosophical confusions derive from the vocabulary we use; literary theory has explored the rhetorical, associative, and ordering features of language; and historical linguists have studied the development of languages across time.Literature of the 20th century refers to world literature produced during the 20th century ( to ).
In terms of the Euro-American tradition, the main periods are captured in the bipartite division, Modernist literature and Postmodern literature, flowering from roughly to and to  respectively, divided, as a rule of. It's simply a fact that English Culture in the 18th century created our modern ideas about Art and Artists.
The 18th century is the time in which the idea of "high art" developed, the time when the modern traditions of literature, art and theater were established, and, most importantly, the time in which wide swathes of people in England gained the time and money to indulgence their fondness.
Course Area: History Designations: Statewide Core This course surveys the United States from the end of the Civil War to the present with emphasis on social, economic, and political problems of the 20th century.
Dramatic literature, the texts of plays that can be read, as distinct from being seen and heard in performance.. The term dramatic literature implies a contradiction in that literature originally meant something written and drama meant something initiativeblog.com of the problems, and much of the interest, in the study of dramatic literature stem from this contradiction.
The multiplicity and diversity of African societies is reflected in the broad literature devoted to the study of women and gender in Africa, which encompasses several thousand ethnolinguistic groups and fifty-five sovereign states.
This body of work has burgeoned since the late 20th century when. A biography of German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. one of the most prominent figures in the 20th-century theatre, Bertolt Brecht (Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht) was born in .