Signs and symptoms A historical image of a person with intellectual disability Intellectual disability ID begins during childhood and involves deficits in mental abilities, social skills, and core activities of daily living ADLs when compared to same-aged peers. Some of the early signs can include: People with mild ID are capable of learning reading and mathematics skills to approximately the level of a typical child aged nine to twelve.
For example, the extremely low incidence under 5 years of age may reflect the minimal social demands made on young children. The highest incidence obtained at the age level occurs when the child is faced with school and more demanding intellectual tasks. It is probably in this age range that the relationship between IQ scores and meeting societal expectancies i.
A test-score orientation to mental retardation results in the view that approximately 3 per cent of the population is mentally retarded. The social competence viewpoint, however, results in a much smaller incidence. Data obtained through surveying representative samples of large populations or the entire population of certain limited regions in England and Scandinavia indicate that about 1 per cent or less of adults are classified as mentally retarded e.
However, some consensus can probably be found for the view that intelligence is a hypothetical construct which has as its ultimate referent the cognitive processes of the individual. Given this, we are still faced with the unresolved issue of whether intelligence represents some single cognitive process which permeates every intelligence test or nontest behavior or whether it represents a great variety of relatively discrete cognitive processes which can be sampled and then summated to yield some indication of the amount of intelligence a person possesses [see Intelligence And Intelligence Testing ].
In either case, the more important questions involve an understanding of exactly how such cognitive processes develop over the life span and exactly how innate and environmental factors interact to influence such development.
Approached in this way, the problem of defining intelligence becomes one with the problem of the nature of cognition and its development.
Cognitive versus psychometric approach It follows that if we are to understand the nature of intelligence, we must consult those workers intent on investigating the nature and development of cognitive processes e.
There has been little cross-fertilization between these two groups, which have approached the investigation of intellective functioning quite differently. These theorists have tried to evolve a theory of human cognition and its development.
If intelligence tests had been developed by this group, psychology might have avoided the perplexing state of affairs encountered in trying to define intelligence. Tests devised by such a group would, by necessity, be indicators of the formal features of the cognitive structure at various times in the life cycle.
Recently, workers within this framework e. Although the task of providing an acceptable theory of the development of cognition is far from finished, Laurendeau and Pinard have been able to take the first step toward the construction of an intelligence test based on the formal features of cognition that were isolated by Piaget [see Developmental Psychologyarticle on A Theory Of Development].
From a historical point of view, the practical demands of society for a test which would measure intellectual functioning meant that intelligence became the province of the second group, namely, the testers and psychometricians.
Furthermore, for a variety of reasons, American thinking was not receptive to the approach taken by the cognitive theorists.
The practical and empirical nature of the work of the testers can be seen in the efforts of Alfred Binetwhose intent was not to investigate the nature of intelligence but rather to discover those test items which would discriminate between successful and unsuccessful school performance.
As has been pointed out, Binet viewed his empirically selected tests as a social screening device rather than as a theoretical interpretation of the nature of intelligence. For the psychometricians, it then became clear that the nature of intelligence could be understood by examining the nature of the tests that were employed to measure it.
By discovering the correlations obtained between subtests within a given battery or across different tests, it was felt that the structure of intellect would be revealed.
MENTAL RETARDATION Mental Retardation is a major health, social and economic problem to the entire nation. Unfortunately, it has been cloaked in an aura of myth and stigma that reflect a lack of knowledge and understanding. Behavioral approaches are important in understanding and working with individuals with intellectual disability. Understanding Mental Retardation sheds new light on mental illnesses that can complicate the lives of those with mental retardation, and the way symptoms of mental illness may appear confused or masked in a patient with mental retardation. Along with information on treatments and diagnoses, the book offers contact information for Reviews: 2.
Despite the statistical rigor involved, no very satisfactory theory of intelligence has come out of the correlational or factor-analytic methods. There is, in fact, little agreement among workers even with regard to the one constant theoretical issue throughout this body of work, namely, the global versus the specific nature of intelligent behavior.
It should be emphasized that the weakness of current theories of intelligence has led to a conceptual impasse in the area of mental retardation. If there is no satisfactory theory of intelligence, then the essential aspect of mental retardation must escape us and we must be content with superficial statistical and social approaches to this complex problem.
We do not necessarily have to await a completed theory of intelligence, however, to cut through much of the complexity, disputation, and confusion encountered in the area of mental retardation. Some clarification appears possible through the simple process of reorienting or restructuring our approach to intellectual retardation.
A rather sizable step forward is taken if our commitment to a simple test approach is abandoned in favor of a concern with cognitive processes. The process-content distinction The plea is not that we abandon tests, for every cognitive theorist must eventually employ tests, as defined in the broadest sense.
The plea is that workers in the field turn their attention from the superficial content of tests i. It is this distinction between structure and content that has for too long escaped most workers in the area of mental retardation.
In this context, the test-constructing efforts of Laurendeau and Pinard appear very promising, since these followers of Piaget have formulated the states of cognitive development in terms of the nature of the cognitive operations achieved, thus emphasizing the nature of the cognitive structure and its accompanying processes.
In their work we thus see a bridge beween a truly cognitive approach to intelligence and the need in the area of mental retardation for an instrument with which to make individual comparisons.Understanding the Parenting Issues of Adults with Mental Retardation _____ _____ _____ 4 mothers had IQs between 30 to 49, 80 percent of them were rated as giving questionable or.
Understanding Mental Retardation constitutes a guide to research and theory for specialists and students alike. Throughout, Edward Zigler and Robert M. Hodapp draw on our knowledge of normal development to inform their discussion of various aspects of retardation. Two introductory chapters provide the developmental framework for this discussion.
Understanding Mental Retardation sheds new light on mental illnesses that can complicate the lives of those with mental retardation, and the way symptoms of mental illness may appear confused or masked in a patient with mental retardation.
Along with information on treatments and diagnoses, the book offers contact information for . Understanding The Concept- 'Mental Retardation' antigenx (55) in air-clinic • 29 days ago We see different types of people every day in life, I am pretty sure some of us have seen some smart dudes and have even bonded and exchanged ideas with them.
Perspective: Mental retardation to intellectual disability R. Schalock et al. American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities disability). Persons with mental retardation are living longer and integrating into their communities. Primary medical care of persons with mental retardation should involve continuity of care, maintenance of.