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Oxidative phosphorylationChemiosmosisand Mitochondrion In oxidative phosphorylation, the electrons removed from organic molecules in areas such as the protagon acid cycle are transferred to oxygen and the energy released is used to make ATP.
This is done in eukaryotes by a series of proteins in the membranes of mitochondria called the electron transport chain. In prokaryotesthese proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. Pumping protons out of the mitochondria creates a proton concentration difference across the membrane and generates an electrochemical gradient.
These organisms can use hydrogen reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfidehydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate ferrous iron FeII  or ammonia  as sources of reducing power and they gain energy from the oxidation of these compounds with electron acceptors such as oxygen or nitrite.
PhototrophPhotophosphorylationand Chloroplast The energy in sunlight is captured by plantscyanobacteriapurple bacteriagreen sulfur bacteria and some protists. This process is often coupled to the conversion of carbon dioxide into organic compounds, as part of photosynthesis, which is discussed below.
The energy capture and carbon fixation systems can however operate separately in prokaryotes, as purple bacteria and green sulfur bacteria can use sunlight as a source of energy, while switching between carbon fixation and the fermentation of organic compounds.
This proton motive force then drives ATP synthesis. Reaction centers are classed into two types depending on the type of photosynthetic pigment present, with most photosynthetic bacteria only having one type, while plants and cyanobacteria have two.
The electrons then flow to the cytochrome b6f complexwhich uses their energy to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Anabolism Anabolism is the set of constructive metabolic processes where the energy released by catabolism is used to synthesize complex molecules.
In general, the complex molecules that make up cellular structures are constructed step-by-step from small and simple precursors. Anabolism involves three basic stages.
First, the production of precursors such as amino acidsmonosaccharidesisoprenoids and nucleotidessecondly, their activation into reactive forms using energy from ATP, and thirdly, the assembly of these precursors into complex molecules such as proteinspolysaccharideslipids and nucleic acids.
Organisms differ according to the number of constructed molecules in their cells.
Autotrophs such as plants can construct the complex organic molecules in cells such as polysaccharides and proteins from simple molecules like carbon dioxide and water. Heterotrophson the other hand, require a source of more complex substances, such as monosaccharides and amino acids, to produce these complex molecules.
Organisms can be further classified by ultimate source of their energy: PhotosynthesisCarbon fixationand Chemosynthesis Plant cells bounded by purple walls filled with chloroplasts greenwhich are the site of photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the synthesis of carbohydrates from sunlight and carbon dioxide CO2.
In plants, cyanobacteria and algae, oxygenic photosynthesis splits water, with oxygen produced as a waste product. This process uses the ATP and NADPH produced by the photosynthetic reaction centresas described above, to convert CO2 into glycerate 3-phosphatewhich can then be converted into glucose.
These differ by the route that carbon dioxide takes to the Calvin cycle, with C3 plants fixing CO2 directly, while C4 and CAM photosynthesis incorporate the CO2 into other compounds first, as adaptations to deal with intense sunlight and dry conditions.
GluconeogenesisGlyoxylate cycleGlycogenesisand Glycosylation In carbohydrate anabolism, simple organic acids can be converted into monosaccharides such as glucose and then used to assemble polysaccharides such as starch. The generation of glucose from compounds like pyruvatelactateglycerolglycerate 3-phosphate and amino acids is called gluconeogenesis.
Gluconeogenesis converts pyruvate to glucosephosphate through a series of intermediates, many of which are shared with glycolysis.
This is important as it allows the formation and breakdown of glucose to be regulated separately, and prevents both pathways from running simultaneously in a futile cycle. As any of the hydroxyl groups on the ring of the substrate can be acceptors, the polysaccharides produced can have straight or branched structures.
Some intermediates are omitted for clarity. Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units.
The acyl chains in the fatty acids are extended by a cycle of reactions that add the acyl group, reduce it to an alcohol, dehydrate it to an alkene group and then reduce it again to an alkane group. The enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are divided into two groups: In animals and archaea, the mevalonate pathway produces these compounds from acetyl-CoA,  while in plants and bacteria the non-mevalonate pathway uses pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as substrates.
Here, the isoprene units are joined together to make squalene and then folded up and formed into a set of rings to make lanosterol. Protein biosynthesis and Amino acid synthesis Organisms vary in their ability to synthesize the 20 common amino acids.
Most bacteria and plants can synthesize all twenty, but mammals can only synthesize eleven nonessential amino acids, so nine essential amino acids must be obtained from food. Nitrogen is provided by glutamate and glutamine. Amino acid synthesis depends on the formation of the appropriate alpha-keto acid, which is then transaminated to form an amino acid.As you’d expect from a woman who wrote a whole damn book on making junk food from scratch, our house isn’t rife with much of anything containing high fructose corn initiativeblog.com there are exceptions to every rule, and as a proud Pittsburgher, I always keep a bottle of Heinz ketchup* in the fridge..
Photo: Casey Barber.
That’s why this past Sunday’s Heinz Super Bowl commercial made me livid. Mayo Clinic Health Letter provides reliable, authoritative and accurate health information. Discover why it is one of the leading health publications. Effects of High Fructose Corn Syrup - Abstract: This research essay will investigate the effects of High Fructose Corn Syrup.
The liver is effected because the fructose—as it is being metabolized deposits fatty acids into the liver, it also develops cirrhosis, which has the same effect normally seen in alcoholics. Hypertension And High Blood Pressure - (Sheps, ) Several factors combine to cause hypertension. High salt intake is usually the cause of hypertension in the elderly, African-Americans, the obese, and people diagnosed with kidney problems.
Read this essay on High Fructose Corn Syrup. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays. Get the knowledge you need in order to pass your classes and more. Only at initiativeblog.com". Metabolism (/ m ə ˈ t æ b ə l ɪ z ə m /, from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in initiativeblog.com three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of.