He is a fiction writer who studies and advocates for the representation of sexual and gender diversity in young adult literature. He is an enthusiastic teacher of writing to young people, and a volunteer with LGBT youth in his home town of Adelaide. His passion is books. He is an aspiring author, has had his poetry and short stories published in Voiceworks magazine and has edited the literary journal Dubnium South Australia Writers Centre.
That gave encouragement to others that rigorous experimental work addressing brain-behavior relations was possible in infants.
It also fundamentally altered the scientific understanding of PFC early in development; clearly it was not silent as accepted wisdom had held.
Even though PFC is very immature early in life and takes a very long time to develop, it can already subserve elementary versions of the highest cognitive functions during the first year of life. Diamond went on to facilitate many of the earliest collaborations between developmental and cognitive scientists, on the one hand, and neuroscientists on the other.
She provided the first demonstration of a visual deficit in treated PKU children which changed international guidelines for the age of treatment onset. No one had ever done anything like that.
Again, the answer lay in integrating two fields. Neuropharmacologists studying the mesocortical dopamine system in rats had shown that if there is only a modest reduction in the dopamine precursor, tyrosine, PFC is selectively affected.
To test that hypothesis, Diamond again turned to work in both humans and animals. They were thereby able to demonstrate the mechanism causing the deficits that had so confounded those working in inborn errors of metabolism, and to demonstrate that the deficits could be prevented by stricter dietary restrictons.
Midway through, Diamond learned that the dopamine system in the retina shares the same unusual properties as those that cause PFC to be sensitive to reductions in available tyrosine too small to affect other brain regions.
To be consistent, she had to predict that retinal function would also be adversely impacted in children treated for PKU, so she ventured into vision science to investigate that together with pediatric optometrist, Dr. Two superficially unrelated behavioral effects a selective cognitive deficit and a selective visual deficit were found to have same underlying cause.
An animal model of early-treated PKU. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, Diamond, A. Impaired sensitivity to visual contrast in children treated early and continuously for PKU. Prefrontal cortex cognitive deficits in children treated early and continuously for PKU.
Cognitive deficits in a genetic mouse model of the most common biochemical cause of human mental retardation. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, A model system for studying the role of dopamine in prefrontal cortex during early development in humans. Reprinted in Reader in brain development and cognition.
One discrepancy troubled Diamond, however. The visual deficits were not.
By the time her team studied contrast sensitivity, they knew what range of Phe levels produced a deficit and so only sampled from within that range. Having a truncated range of current Phe levels could easily have accounted for the failure to find a relation between contrast sensitivity and current Phe levels.
However, a child born with PKU is usually not started on treatment for the disorder until about 10 days of age.Diversity is a source of strength, creativity, and innovation for UW–Madison. We value the contributions of each person and respect the profound ways their identity, culture, background, experience, status, abilities, and opinion enrich the university community.
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Let’s be perfectly clear: Fast track programs to Ph.D. degrees are rare. That said, more and more legitimate online “accelerated” programs devised by brick and mortar schools are becoming available, particularly targeting working individuals, with master’s degrees, who want to earn that Ph.D.
while continuing in their job. Subject Overview. Disaster management and resilience research has been conducted at Salford for over 20 years and related research is funded by research councils, national and international government bodies, and industry.
Barbara Biedrzycki is an oncology nurse practitioner for the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, a clinical research associate for the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and a clinical instructor for the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing.