Bios Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie, the most contradictory of the robber barons: Andrew is born in Scotland in After steam power makes his textile worker father redundant, the family emigrate. He starts work aged 12, and soon his intelligence secures him a PA position to Pittsburgh rail road President, Tom Scott.
On the Indian subcontinentthe Mughal Empire ruled most of India in the early 18th century.
During this period, the Empire was marked by a highly centralized administration connecting the different regions. All the significant monuments of the Mughals, their most visible legacy, date to this period which was characterised by the expansion of Persian cultural influence in the Indian subcontinent, with brilliant literary, artistic, and architectural results.
The Maratha Empire was located in the south west of present-day India and expanded greatly under the rule of the Peshwasthe prime ministers of the Maratha empire. Inthe Maratha army lost the Third Battle of Panipat which halted imperial expansion and the empire was then divided into a confederacy of Maratha states.
British and Dutch colonization[ edit ] The development of New Imperialism saw the conquest of nearly all eastern hemisphere territories by colonial powers. The commercial colonization of India commenced inafter the Battle of Plasseywhen the Nawab of Bengal surrendered his dominions to the British East India Company,  inwhen the Company was granted the diwani, or the right to collect revenue, in Bengal and Bihar or inwhen the Company established a capital in Calcuttaappointed its first Governor-GeneralWarren Hastingsand became directly involved in governance.
The rule lasted untilwhen, after the Indian rebellion of and consequent of the Government of India Actthe British government assumed the task of directly administering India in the new British Raj.
However, their rivalry cooled in when an Anglo-Dutch treaty demarcated their respective interests in Southeast Asia. From the s onwards, the pace of colonization shifted to a significantly higher gear.
The Dutch East India Company and British East India Company were dissolved by their respective governments, who took over the direct administration of the colonies.
Only Thailand was spared the experience of foreign rule, although, Thailand itself was also greatly affected by the power politics of the Western powers.
Colonial rule had a profound effect on Southeast Asia. Tsardom of Russia[ edit ] Main article: Tsardom of Russia Russia experienced territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks. Cossacks were warriors organized into military communities, resembling pirates and pioneers of the New World.
This area was settled by a population of free people practicing various trades and crafts. Cossacks became the backbone of the early Russian Army. Inthe peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against Poland-Lithuania during the Khmelnytsky Uprisingbecause of the social and religious oppression they suffered under Polish rule.
Finally, Ukraine was split along the river Dnieperleaving the western part or Right-bank Ukraine under Polish rule and eastern part Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev under Russian.
In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia was led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable furs and ivory.
Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian river routesand by the midth century there were Russian settlements in the Eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsulaalong the Amur Riverand on the Pacific coast. Reason and Enlightenment[ edit ] Further information: The Age of Reason in the Western world is generally regarded as being the start of modern philosophy and a departure from the medieval approach, especially Scholasticism.
Early 17th-century philosophy is often called the Age of Rationalism and is considered to succeed Renaissance philosophy and precede the Age of Enlightenment, but some consider it as the earliest part of the Enlightenment era in philosophy, extending that era to two centuries. The 18th century saw the beginning of secularization in Europe, rising to notability in the wake of the French Revolution.
The Age of Enlightenment is a time in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the 18th century in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority.Frequently asked questions about the transcontinental railroad. Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum.
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