The Effects of the Crusades on Government Introduction to The Crusades Besides the economic, environmental, and technological effects of the Crusades, the Crusades also changed the political landscape of the Medieval Ages. The Crusades destroyed some forms of government and dramatically changed others. Papacy is "the office, authority, and jurisdiction of the Pope. The government was in a monarch bureaucracy state with feudalism ideals.
Chemical Weapons - Greek Fire Incendiary devices were standard weapons of war. Wooden defences always needed protection from burning. Wet animal hides were highly effective against burning arrows so military engineers dedicated themselves to finding ways of ensuring that fires burned as long and as strongly as necessary to catch.
All sorts of chemicals could be used for this purpose - petroleum, sulphur, quicklime and tar barrels for example. Liquid fire is represented on Assyrian bas-reliefs.
At the siege of Plataea in BC the Spartans attempted to burn the town by piling up against the walls wood saturated with pitch and sulphur and setting it on fire, and at the siege of Delium in BC a cauldron containing pitch, sulphur and burning charcoal was placed against the walls.
A century later Aeneas Tacticus mentions a mixture of sulphur, pitch, charcoal, incense and tow packed in wooden vessels, ignited and thrown onto the decks of enemy ships.
Formulae given by Vegetius around AD add naphtha or petroleum. Some nine centuries later the same substances are found and later recipes include saltpetre and turpentine make their appearance.
The ultimate in this form of chemical warfare was called Greek-Fire. Greek fire was a burning-liquid used as a weapon of war by the Byzantines, and also by Arabs, Chinese, and Mongols.
Incendiary weapons had been in use for centuries: Greek fire was vastly more potent. Similar to modern napalm, it would adhere to surfaces, ignite upon contact, and could not be extinguished by water alone.
Byzantines used it in naval battles to great effect because it burned on water. It was responsible for numerous Byzantine military victories on land as well as at sea - and also for enemies preferring discretion to valour so that many battles never took place at all.
It was the ultimate deterrent of the time, and helps explain the Byzantine Empire's survival until There was no defence. As the Lord of Joinville noted in the thirteenth century "Every time they hurl the fire at us, we go down on our elbows and knees, and beseech Our Lord to save us from this danger.
On the other hand Greek fire was very hard to control, and it would often accidentally set Byzantine ships ablaze. The formula for Greek fire was a closely guarded secret and it remains a mystery to this day. The term Greek Fire was not attributed to it until the time of the European Crusades.
Muslims against whom the weapon was used called the Byzantines Romans. The weapon was first used by the Byzantine navy, and the most common method of deployment was to squirt it through a large bronze tube onto enemy ships. Usually the mixture would be stored in heated, pressurised barrels and projected through the tube by some sort of pump, operators being protected behind large iron shields.
Byzantines used Greek Fire only rarely, apparently out of fear that the secret mixture might fall into enemy hands.A solid-state drive or SSD is a storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory or interconnected flash memories to store data persistently even without power.
Guns, Sails, and Empires: Technological Innovation and the Early Phases of European Expansion, [Caro M. Cipolla] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Guns, Sails and Empires is that rarity among works of history: a short book with a simple, powerful thesis that the entire book is devoted to proving.
Carlo Cipolla begins with the question. The Role of the Crusades in the transfer of Islamic science to the West. Tweet. By: Salah Zaimeche. Local builders employed by the Crusaders revealed the solutions to the problems of construction orally or by demonstration.
Talbot Rice points out that in the area dominated by the Seljuk Turks during the Crusades there was building work. Realm of Chaos. The first version of Realm of Chaos is a two-volume publication by Games Workshop concerning the forces of Chaos. The hardback books contain background material and rules for Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay (1st edition), Warhammer 40, Rogue Trader and Warhammer Fantasy Battle (3rd edition)..
It consists of the book Slaves to Darkness and the follow-up The Lost . Reverse Spins picks and reviews the best in metaphysical and esoteric literature, from fiction to some non-fiction. The only prerequisite is that the book must be . Technological advancements have always played a big role in the literary progression of mankind.
As knowledge is gained, technology has improved, and as technology improved so has the literature. Technological Advancements from the Crusades.
Research Paper Some view the Crusades as wars of bloodlust, greed, and power.
War is an.