See Article History Alternative Titles: It is known from archaeological evidence that a highly sophisticated urbanized culture—the Indus civilization —dominated the northwestern part of the subcontinent from about to bce. From that period on, India functioned as a virtually self-contained political and cultural arena, which gave rise to a distinctive tradition that was associated primarily with Hinduismthe roots of which can largely be traced to the Indus civilization. Other religions, notably Buddhism and Jainismoriginated in India—though their presence there is now quite small—and throughout the centuries residents of the subcontinent developed a rich intellectual life in such fields as mathematics, astronomy, architecture, literature, music, and the fine arts.
According to a translation of Persian text Chachnamah by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, the Umayyad governor of DamascusHajjaj responded to a plea by men and women attacked and imprisoned by a tribe off the coast of Debal Karachiwho had gone there to purchase some Indian female slaves and rich goods.
Records from the campaign recorded in the Chach Nama record temple demolitions, and mass executions of resisting Sindhi forces and the enslavement of their dependents. The raids attacked the kingdoms ruled by Hindu and Buddhist kings, wealth plundered, tribute kharaj settled and hostages taken.
The temple was completely destroyed on the orders of Muslim Sultan Sikandar Butshikan in the early 15th century, with demolition lasting a year. After the conquest of Sindh, Qasim chose the Hanafi school of Islamic law which that when under Muslim rule, polytheists such as Hindus, Buddhists, and Jains are to be regarded as dhimmis from the Arab term as well as " People of the Book " and are required to pay jizya for religious freedom.
This decision proved crucial into the way which Muslim rulers ruled in India for the next years. Lal in his book Theory and Practice of Muslim State in India claims that between the years AD and AD, the population of the Indian subcontinent decreased from to million.
With the fall of Hindu kings, science research and philosophy faced some setbacks due to a lack of funding, royal support, and an open environment.
Despite unfavourable treatment under the Muslim rule, Brahmanical education continued and was also patronised by rulers like Akbar and others. Bukka Raya Ione of the founders of Vijaynagar Empirehad taken steps to rehabilitate Hindu religious and cultural institutions which suffered a serious setback under Muslim rule.
Buddhists centres of learning decayed, leading to the rise to prominence of Brahmanical institutions.
A lot of Vedantic literature got translated into these languages between 12th to 15th centuries. Mahmud of GhazniSultan of the Ghaznavid empireinvaded the Indian subcontinent during the early 11th century. His campaigns across the Gangetic plains are often cited for their iconoclast plundering and destruction of temples.
Mahmud's court historian Al-Utbi viewed Mahmud's expeditions as a jihad to propagate Islam and extirpate idolatry. Orders were given that all the temples should be burnt with naphthala and fire and levelled with the ground.
The city was given up to plunder for twenty days. Among the spoil are said to have been five great idols of pure gold with eyes of rubies and adornments of other precious stones, together with a vast number of smaller silver images, which, when broken up, formed a load for more than a hundred camels.
His son and successor, the Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, continued his work, carrying the so called, 'holy war' against the Hindus into India". According to some sources like Ibn Batuta  the name of the Hindu Kush mountains of the region means "Hindu killer",   because raiders would capture Hindu slaves — all Indians were termed Hindu in Islamic literature — from the plains and take them away to West Asia, with large numbers of boys and girls dying from icy cold weather in these mountains.
Recurrent clashes between Hindus and Muslims appear in the historical record during the Delhi Sultanate. The first mosque built in Delhi, the " Quwwat al-Islam " was built with demolished parts of 20 Hindu and Jain temples.
After crossing rivers, hills and many depths, the elephants were sent, in order that the inhabitants of Ma'bar might be made aware of the day of resurrection had arrived amongst them; and that all the burnt Hindus would be despatched by the sword to their brothers in hell, so that fire, the improper object of their worship, might mete out proper punishment to them.
Halebid temple was destroyed. The temples, cities, and villages were plundered. The loot from south India was so large, that historians of that era state a thousand camels had to be deployed to carry it to Delhi. His army routinely rounded local Hindu villagers and impaling and decapitated them, indiscriminately with women and children being included.
At Srirangam, the invading army desecrated the shrine and killed 12, unarmed ascetics. The Vaishnava philosopher Sri Vedanta Desika, hid himself amongst the corpses together with the sole manuscript of the Srutaprakasika, the magnum opus of Sri Sudarsana Suri whose eyes were put out, and also the latter's two sons.The Steppe, belt of grassland that extends some 5, miles (8, kilometres) from Hungary in the west through Ukraine and Central Asia to Manchuria in the east.
Mountain ranges interrupt the steppe, dividing it into distinct segments; but horsemen could cross such barriers easily, so that steppe peoples could and did interact across the entire breadth of the Eurasian grassland throughout. The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, meaning "Great Mongol Nation;" (–) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² at its peak, with an estimated population of over million people.
The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in. History and description of Haplogroup R1a (Y-chromosomal DNA) and its subclades.
Haplogroup R1a is the dominant paternal lineage in Northeast Europe and southern Central Asia. It was diffused around Eurasia by the Indo-Aryans and Balto-Slavic people. History and description of Haplogroup R1a (Y-chromosomal DNA) and its subclades.
Haplogroup R1a is the dominant paternal lineage in Northeast Europe and southern Central Asia. It was diffused around Eurasia by the Indo-Aryans and Balto-Slavic people.
A Eurasian is a person of mixed Asian and European ancestry. The term was originally coined in 19th-century British India to identify a person born to (usually) a British father and an Indian mother.
These mixed offspring were later called initiativeblog.com addition to British many were also of mixed Portuguese, Dutch, Irish or, more rarely, French descent.. The term has now been extended to. The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, meaning "Great Mongol Nation;" (–) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² at its peak, with an estimated population of over million people.
The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in.