In John Snow determined the source of a cholera outbreak in London by marking points on a map depicting where the cholera victims lived, and connecting the cluster that he found with a nearby water source. This was one of the earliest successful uses of a geographic methodology in epidemiology. While the basic elements of topography and theme existed previously in cartographythe John Snow map was unique, using cartographic methods not only to depict but also to analyze clusters of geographically dependent phenomena.
Subsidy impact[ edit ] Marginal subsidies on production will shift the supply curve to the right until the vertical distance between the two supply curves is equal to the per unit subsidy; when other things remain equal, this will decrease price paid by the consumers Thesis using gis is equal to the new market price and increase the price received by the producers.
Similarly, a marginal subsidy on consumption will shift the demand curve to the right; when other things remain equal, this will decrease the price paid by consumers and increase the price received by producers by the same amount as if the subsidy had been granted to producers.
However, in this case, the new market price will be the price received by producers. The end result is that the lower price that consumers pay and the higher price that producers receive will be the same, regardless of how the subsidy is administered. Where the supply curve is less elastic than the demand curve, producers bear more of the tax and receive more of the subsidy than consumers as the difference between the price producers receive and the initial market price is greater than the difference borne by consumers.
Where the demand curve is more inelastic than the supply curve, the consumers bear more of the tax and receive more of the subsidy as the difference between the price consumers pay and the initial market price is greater than the difference borne by producers.
An illustration[ edit ] The effect of this type of tax can be illustrated on a standard supply and demand diagram. Without a tax, the equilibrium price will be at Pe and the equilibrium quantity will be at Qe.
After a tax is imposed, the price consumers pay will shift to Pc and the price producers receive will shift to Pp. The consumers' price will be equal to the producers' price plus the cost of the tax. Since consumers will buy less at the higher consumer price Pc and producers will sell less at a lower producer price Ppthe quantity sold will fall from Qe to Qt.Berkeley Law is one of the nation’s premier law schools, located at UC Berkeley.
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